Agriculture

The word “Agriculture” has no rigid definition. It has been explained by many people very comprehensively. Agriculture has been defined as the science and art of cultivating the soil, and this definition emphasizes the primary nature of plant production in agriculture.Moreover, it is so frequent that the same person performs both the primary functions of growing plants and the secondary one of feeding the plants to livestock that these two industries are grouped together as agriculture. Therefore, it may be said that agriculture includes not only the production of crops by the cultivation of the soil, but also the rearing of livestock.
Thus, milk, meat and wool are as much agricultural products as are wheat, rice and cotton. In the words of George O’Brien, therefore, the word agriculture includes, “every industry which aims at producing vegetables or animals by the cultivation of the soil.”So, agriculture is the business of raising products from the land. The products raised may either be plants and their products or animals and their products. The former are the direct products while the latter are the indirect products of the land. Agricultural products are complex and diverse, in nature, and as such, agriculture may be regarded as complex industry.Modern agriculture is such broader in scope than merely the art and science of cultivating the land. It is the whole business of supplying food and fiber for a growing population at home and abroad. Again in agriculture we include all forms of soil production, from forestry to glass-house culture, from fishery to artificial insemination, and from breeding to horticulture.

Primi­tive men must have begun as food gatherers, eating whatever fruits, leaves and roots they could obtain. Nature must have been bountiful in those days when human numbers were so small and wild plants grew everywhere. As time passed and human numbers grew, fishing and hunting became increasingly im­portant in supplementing what was lacking in the field, and an endless search for food ensued.It was soon realized that some form of food pro­duction was necessary if men were to live long and secure. Animals were tamed, first to provide meat, milk and skin; later for use as draught animals. Seeds were sown in ploughed fields, carefully tended and harvested when the time came.Men were then able to live in settled communities. Because they were no longer continually moving they had time to develop the various arts, crafts and skills that formed the basis of modern industries and also evolved religious and political ideas. Without a settled agriculture, a meas­urable degree of civilization is not possible.


Agriculture
is not farming
it’s feeding