Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)

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Coronoary Heart Disease is defined as “the impairment of heart function due to the inadequate blood flow to the heart.” It causes 25-30% death in industrialized countries. The epidemicity, that is the relative ability to spread from one host to another in a locality, of CHD began at different times in different countries. The countries where the epidemic started early are showing a decline in the number of cases detected but still CHD poses as one of the largest health problems across the globe. CHD was the leading cause of death globally resulting in over 7million deaths. It may affect individuals of any age but becomes more common at progressively at older ages. It is estimated that 60% of the world’s cardiovascular disease occurs in the South Asian subcontinent. Males are at a higher risk of getting affected by CHD than the females.

CHD in India

The pattern of CHD in India is reported as follows:

  • CHD occurs in the population who have attained the age between 51-60 years.
  • Males are affected more than females.
  • Hypertension and diabetes account for about 40% of all the cases.
  • Heavy smoking is also reslonsible for CHD in higher number.

The risk factors that can lead to CHD include smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and stress.

Prevention of CHD:

WHO has recommended the following strategies for the prevention of CHD:

  1. Population strategy:
    1. CHD is primarily a mass disease. The strategy should have a mass approach focusing mainly on the control of underlying risk factors.
    2. Small changes in the risk factor levels can achieve the biggest reduction in mortality.
    3. The population strategy is centered around the areas such as Dietary changes, smoke free society, blood pressure measurement and physical activity.
  2. High risk strategy: By means of simple tests such as blood pressure and serum cholesterol management, it is possible to identify individuals at a special risk.
  3. Secondary prevention: Secondary prevention must be seen s he continuation of primary prevention. The aim of secondary prevention is to prevent the recurrence and progression of CHD.

In a world where health risk factors are present everywhere, we should do our best to avoid falling prey to any kind of health risk.