Child labor is the deprivation of children’s childhood, affecting their ability to attend regular school and exploiting them through all forms of work that are mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.
After gaining independence from colonial rule, India enacted many constitutional protections and child labor laws. The Constitution of India in the principles of basic rights and public policy prohibits child labor under the age of 14 in factories, mines, castles or other dangerous occupations (Article 24). The Constitution also stipulated that by 1960 India would provide all children aged 6 to 14 with the infrastructure and resources for compulsory free of charge education . (Articles 21-A and 45).
In 2011, the Indian Census found that of the 259.64 million children in this age group, the total number of child laborers [ages 5-14] was 10.1 million. The problem of child labor is not unique to India. Approximately 217 million children work worldwide, many of whom work full-time.
In India child labour is defined as the involvement of children under the age of 17 in economically productive activities, with or without compensation and wages . Such participation can be physical, mental, or both. This work includes part-time or unpaid work on farms, family businesses, or other economic activities such as cultivation or milk production for sale or personal consumption. The Government of India divides child labor into two groups. The main workers are those who work more than 6 months a year. And marginal child laborers are workers who work all year round, but less than six months a year. In 1979, the Government of India established the Gurupadswamy Commission to learn about child labor and how to fight it. The Child Labor Probation and Regulation Act was enacted in 1986 on the recommendation of the Commission. A national child labor policy was developed in 1987 focusing on the rehabilitation of children working in dangerous professions. Since 1988, the Ministry of Labor and Employment has established approximately 100 industry-specific national child labor projects to rehabilitate child laborers.
The Government of India has enacted numerous laws, organizations and institutions to combat the issue of child labor. Some initiatives include child labor bans and regulations, laws prohibiting the employment of children in certain occupation and regulating the working conditions of children. The National Child Labor Policy attempts to take a sequential approach with a primary focus on the rehabilitation of children working in dangerous professions and processes of works. The Ministry of Labor and Employment is responsible for providing and supervising a range of child labor policies in India. In addition, as Osment reported, NGOs such as Care India, Child Rights and You, and Global March Against Child Labor were implemented to tackle child labor through access to education and resources. However, these efforts were of little success.
Bachpan Bachao Andolan, Child Rights and You, ChildFund, CARE India, GoodWeave India,Talaash Association, Global March for Child Labor, and many other NGOs are campaigning to eliminate child labor in India. increase.