Integration of Indian States of Independent India.

Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel played an important role in the integration of the princely state into the Dominion of India. This achievement laid the foundation for Patel’s popularity in the post-independence era. He is still remembered as the man who united India today. In this respect he is compared to Otto von Bismarck, who united many German states in 1871. The June 3 plan gave more than 565 princely states the option of joining India or Pakistan or choosing independence. Most Indian nationalists and the masses were afraid that most people and territories would be fragmented without the participation of these states. Parliament and British officials considered Patel to be the best man on a mission to secure the conquest of the princely state from Indian rule. According to Gandhi only Patel could solve this problem. Patel had practical insight and determination to accomplish monumental work. Patel asked V.P. Menon, a senior official involved in the division of India, to become his right-hand man as Principal Secretary of State. Patel used a social gathering and informal setting to involve most monarchs and invite them to their home in Delhi for lunch and tea. At these meetings, Patel stated that there was no essential conflict between Congress and the prince’s order. Patel aroused the patriotism of the Indian monarchs and urged them to embrace the independence of their country and act as responsible rulers who care for their people’s future. He persuaded the rulers of 565 states about the impossibility of independence from the Republic of India, especially in the face of rising opposition from their subject. He proposed favorable conditions for the merger, including the creation of a secret purse for the descendants of the ruler. Patel encouraged the rulers to act patrioticly, and to thought about his states people and their futur, but he did not rule out violence. He emphasized the need for the princes to join India in good faith and gave them to sign the membership certificate until August 15, 1947. All but three states were willing to join the Indian Union. Only Jammu and Kashmir, Junagad and Hyderabad were States which were tough to brought under Indian Dominion.

Junagadh being situated in Gujrat it was very important for Patel to bring it under Indian’s dominion. This was also important because there was the super-rich Somnath Temple (a temple where different stones were their including emeralds, diamonds, and gold which were looted by Mohd. Ghazni) in the Kathiawar district. Bieng under the pressure from Sir Shah Nawas Bhutto, a Nawab who joined Pakistan. However, it was far from Pakistan, with 80% of its state population being Hindus.Patel combining diplomacy and power, Pakistan invalidated Pakistan’s accession and demanded that Nawab join India. Patel sent troops to occupy the three principalities of Junagadh to show his determination. After widespread protests and the formation of the civilian government, or Aarzi Hukumat, both Bhutto and Nawab fled to Karachi, and under Patel’s orders, Indian troops and police forces invaded the state. A later organized referendum resulted in 99.5% of the votes in favor of the merger with India. After taking over, Patel, who spoke at the University of Bahauddin in Junagad, emphasized his sense of urgency regarding Hyderabad. He believes this is more important to India than Kashmir.

Hyderabad was the largest of the princely states and which included States parts of which are now Telangana, Arndra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra. Its ruler, Nizam Osman Ali Khan, was Muslim, but more than 80% of the population of state was Hindu. Nizam called for independence or accession to Pakistan. Under Kasim Razvi, an army of Nizam-faithful Islamic troops called Razakar urged Nizam to confront India and at the same time organize an attack on the people of India’s soil. The standstill agreement was signed by Lord Mountbatten’s in desperate efforts to avoid the war, but Nizam refused to trade and changed his position. At a cabinet meeting in September 1948, Patel emphasized that India should stop speaking and reconciled Nehru and Governor Chakravarti Rajgoparachari with military action. After preparation, Patel ordered the Indian troops to invade Hyderabad (in his position on behalf of the Prime Minister) when Nehru traveled to Europe. This action, called Operation Polo, in which thousands of Razakar troops were killed , but Hyderabad was secured and integrated into the Republic of India. Mountbatten and Nehru’s main goal was to avoid forced annexation to prevent the outbreak of Hindu and Muslim violence. Patel argued that if Hyderabad was allowed to survive as an independent state surrounded by India, the government’s fame would decline and neither Hindus nor Muslims would feel reassured in their empire. After defeating the Nizam, Patel held him as the head of state of the ritual and met with him. India had 562 princely states after addition of Junagarh, Heydrabad and Jammu& Kashmir.