Garhwali is the Indo-Aryan language of the Central Pahari Region which is mainly spoken by more than 2.5 million people in the Garhwal region of Uttarakhand, northern India, in the Himalayas of India, Uttarakhand. Garhwali is also spoken by Garhwali people living in other parts of India, such as Himachal Pradesh, Delhi, Hariyana, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. According to various estimates, at least 3.5 million Garhwali migrants live in Delhi and other cities.
During the Middle Indo-Aryan era, there were various languages called Prakrit. Of which, Khas Prakrit language is believed to be the source of Garhwali language.The earliest forms of Garhwali can be traced back to the 10th century and can be found in temple stones, including numismatics, royal seals, copper plate inscriptions, royal orders and grants. An example is the inscription of King Jagatpal’s Temple Grant in Dev Prayag in 1335 AD. Most Garhwali literature survives in vernacular form and is transmitted verbally. But since the 18th century, Garhwali has developed a literary tradition.
LITERETURE & WRITERS
Among the famous Garhwali writers in hiastory of literature are Sudarsan Shah, Kumdanand Bahguna, Hari Dutt Sharma (Nautiyal), Hari Krishna Daurga Dutti Rudra, Urvi Dutt Shastri ,Mahidhar Dangwal, etc. , Satyasaran Raturi, Atma Ram Gairola, Devendra Dutt Raturi, Suradutt Saklani and more. Among historians are Mola Ram, Miya Prem Singh, Hari Dutt Shastri, Hari Krishna Raturi and Vijaya Ram Raturi.
Garhwali literature is thriving despite the ignorance of the government. Today, newspapers like Uttarakhand Khabarsar and Rant Raibaar are published entirely in Garhwali. Magazines such as Baduli, Hilaans, Chitti-patri and Dhaad have contributed to the development of GarhwaliGarhwali language.
Some Notable works of Gharwali writers:
•)Abodh Bandhu Bahuguna – (1927–2004) Garhwali writer. Some nitable writings include Gaad, Myateki Ganga, and Bhumyal.
•)Bachan Singh Negi – “Garhwali translation of Mahabharata and Ramayana”.
•)Lalit Mohan Thapalyal – “Achhryun ku taal”
•)Leeladhar Jagudi – (1944) Writer and novelist. PadmaShri
•)Lokesh Nawani – “Phanchi”
•)Madan Mohan Duklaan – “Aandi-jaandi saans”
•)Chandramohan Raturi – “Phyunli”
•)Chinmay Sayar – “Aunar”
•)Dr. Narendra Gauniyal – “Dheet”
•)Durga Prasad Ghildiyal – “Bwari”, “Mwari” and “Gaari”
•)Gireesh Juyal ‘Kutaj’ – “Khigtaat”.
Struggle of Official RecogItion:
Since the establishment of Uttarakhand in 2000, the state governments have made slow progress in promoting and developing the regional language of Uttarakhand. Like other languages in Uttarakhand, Garhwali, the most widely spoken language, is not officially recognized. In 2010, Hindi became the official language and Sanskrit became the second official language of Uttarakhand. In 2014, after making Garhwali the official language of Uttarakhand and demanding that it be taught at schools and universities for many years, the Uttarakhand State Government established Kumaoni and Garhwali departments at Kumaoni and Garhwali universities, respectively, to study the regional languages. At the national level, Garhwali is always required to be included in the 8th schedule of the Indian Constitution in order to be one of India’s schedule languages. In July 2010, Parliamentary member Satpal Maharaj of Pauli Garhwal submitted a legislative bill to Lok Sabha to include the languages of Garhwali and Kumaoni in the eighth schedule of the Constitution. Like most private citizen bills, the bill has not been discussed in Parliament and has since expired.